Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation method that is appropriate for a variety of functions, especially when salt and/or dissolved solids have to be faraway from an answer. It is considered one of the most common forms of water therapy.
According to Anelia Hough, water therapy marketing consultant at Allmech, leading South African producer of boilers and supplier of water therapy components, there are a number of factors to be thought-about when deciding on an RO system: the customer’s capacity requirement (i.e. water usage), the daily manufacturing capacity of the system, and the percent rejection for specific contaminants in the supply water.
“Beyond this, RO plants require correct maintenance and care to make sure they operate optimally and to extend their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from common upkeep, the greatest way to protect a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the strain on the RO membrane – a pricey element. It also helps to avoid points like scaling and bio-fouling.”
Common Issues with RO Plants
“Factors that can have an result on a RO system’s performance embody temperature, working strain, again pressure, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, percent restoration, and, of course, the RO membrane’s permeate production and percent rejection scores,” says Hough.
The most common points in RO crops embrace:
• Fouling: occurs when contaminants accumulate on the membrane surface, successfully plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water which would possibly be harmless for human consumption, but large enough to shortly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, inflicting it to plug. As sure dissolved compounds become extra concentrated, scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane floor as scale. Scaling calculations are normally only based on the silicate concentration in the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces actual membrane performance through microbial generation in a biofilm that forms on the membrane surface.
• Chemical harm: on a RO membrane, this implies a better permeate flow and poorer quality permeate water. Dosing of oxidant agents, corresponding to chlorine or hypochlorite, can scale back efficiency and in the end outcome within the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners can even trigger chemical injury.
• Mechanical injury: can occur when a system is pressurised too shortly, damaging the RO membrane elements. One of probably the most clears indicators of damages on a RO membrane is the lack of salt rejection capabilities. There can be fairly often a rise of permeate move fee.
Pre-treatment might help to avoid these issues, and Hough says there are various options available.
Pre-treatment Options
“When choosing a pre-filter, users should all the time search for a verified effectivity rating next to the micron measurement on the filter’s technical knowledge sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to assist prevent fouling of a RO system. This sort of sediment filtration is good for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system helping to ensure lengthy lifetime of the RO membrane parts. A nicely operated multimedia filter can take away particulates down to twenty microns. A multimedia filter that uses a coagulant addition can remove particulates all the means down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters used in microfiltration have a pore size of roughly 0.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the one element that may be removed through microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemical compounds that can be used as antiscalants and dispersants to enhance the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a family of chemical compounds designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale.
• Softening by ion change: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water by way of a course of referred to as ion trade. Standard water softeners are cation exchange units. Cation exchange entails the replacement of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that includes a transfer of electrons from the floor of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines find yourself as a chloride ion that’s no longer an oxidizer.
“It’s also important to scrub the RO membrane often,” says Hough. “This includes high and low pH cleaners to take away contaminants from the membrane. เกจวัดแรงดันลมราคา tackle scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, whereas colloidal and biofouling are treated with a high pH cleaner.”
Allmech presents the entire range of pre-treatment and RO membrane upkeep options for RO plants, including filtration techniques, softeners, antiscalants, chemicals and other consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re looking forward to rising this a part of our enterprise in 2022 and beyond, leveraging our experience in all issues related to water remedy. We also have a boiler division and we inventory a comprehensive vary of Runxin valves, so we’re properly positioned to be a one-stop store for anyone needing a water therapy or boiler specialist, and we’re anticipating a busy year ahead,” Hough says.

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