Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation approach that’s appropriate for a variety of applications, especially when salt and/or dissolved solids have to be faraway from a solution. It is certainly one of the most typical forms of water remedy.
According to Anelia Hough, water therapy marketing consultant at Allmech, main South African producer of boilers and supplier of water remedy parts, there are several elements to be considered when deciding on an RO system: the customer’s capacity requirement (i.e. water usage), the every day production capability of the system, and the p.c rejection for specific contaminants within the source water.
“Beyond this, RO vegetation require proper upkeep and care to ensure they function optimally and to extend their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from common maintenance, one of the only ways to protect a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the strain on the RO membrane – a expensive element. It also helps to keep away from issues like scaling and bio-fouling.”
Common Issues with RO Plants
“Factors that can have an effect on a RO system’s performance embrace temperature, operating stress, back pressure, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, % restoration, and, in fact, the RO membrane’s permeate production and p.c rejection ratings,” says Hough.
The most typical points in RO crops embrace:
• Fouling: occurs when contaminants accumulate on the membrane surface, effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water that are innocent for human consumption, but giant enough to rapidly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, causing it to plug. As sure dissolved compounds turn out to be more concentrated, scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane surface as scale. Scaling calculations are usually solely based mostly on the silicate focus within the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces actual membrane performance by way of microbial generation in a biofilm that forms on the membrane surface.
เกจวัดแรงดันอากาศ : on a RO membrane, this implies a higher permeate circulate and poorer quality permeate water. Dosing of oxidant brokers, similar to chlorine or hypochlorite, can scale back efficiency and ultimately end result within the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners also can trigger chemical injury.
• Mechanical injury: can happen when a system is pressurised too quickly, damaging the RO membrane parts. One of probably the most clears indicators of damages on a RO membrane is the lack of salt rejection capabilities. There can also be fairly often an increase of permeate move price.
Pre-treatment might help to keep away from these problems, and Hough says there are various choices obtainable.
Pre-treatment Options
“When deciding on a pre-filter, customers should always search for a verified efficiency score subsequent to the micron measurement on the filter’s technical knowledge sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to assist prevent fouling of a RO system. This type of sediment filtration is good for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system helping to make sure lengthy lifetime of the RO membrane parts. A nicely operated multimedia filter can take away particulates down to twenty microns. A multimedia filter that makes use of a coagulant addition can remove particulates all the way down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters used in microfiltration have a pore measurement of approximately zero.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the only component that may be removed via microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemical compounds that can be utilized as antiscalants and dispersants to improve the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a household of chemical compounds designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that type scale.
• Softening by ion trade: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water via a process known as ion change. Standard water softeners are cation trade units. Cation trade includes the substitute of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that includes a transfer of electrons from the floor of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines end up as a chloride ion that’s now not an oxidizer.
“It’s additionally essential to scrub the RO membrane frequently,” says Hough. “This includes low and high pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. We address scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, whereas colloidal and biofouling are handled with a excessive pH cleaner.”
Allmech provides the whole range of pre-treatment and RO membrane upkeep options for RO crops, together with filtration techniques, softeners, antiscalants, chemical compounds and different consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re looking ahead to rising this a part of our business in 2022 and beyond, leveraging our experience in all issues related to water treatment. We also have a boiler division and we inventory a complete vary of Runxin valves, so we’re nicely positioned to be a one-stop store for anyone needing a water therapy or boiler specialist, and we’re anticipating a busy year forward,” Hough says.

Scroll to Top