Temperature Sensor Types

Temperature, as a fundamental and significant environmental parameter, is the temperature vary inside which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some electronic circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature plays a pivotal position in experimentation and engineering, and quite so much of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key elements of scientific analysis and engineering applications.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose a temperature sensor?

How to take care of the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring device. It converts heat (temperature) into a readable form corresponding to an electrical sign such as present, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument shut up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic equipment

Food and beverage business

Pharmaceutical industry

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings via an electrical signal. They include two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature modifications. Temperature sensor work relies on measuring the voltage throughout the terminals of a diode. As the voltage will increase, the temperature increases accordingly, at which point there’s a decrease in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that have to be in direct contact with the thing to be measured so as to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors make the most of different bodily properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, present, etc.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can reflect the temperature of the object to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are most commonly used in industrial, automotive, and everyday household functions. Because they’re self-powered, they do not require excitation, have fast response occasions, and may function over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a ring of two totally different metallic wires wound together to supply a voltage change between the 2 metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are produced from a quantity of different supplies, allowing temperature sensors to measure totally different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all other thermocouples are also designated using the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, similar to an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance changes with temperature. They are normally made from a polymer or ceramic covered with a glass floor, which is why they’re cheaper and less correct than RTDs. There are two major kinds of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical type and are characterized by a decrease in resistance as the temperature will increase. This is because at larger temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) within the semiconductor materials will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working range of -72.4 to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and commonplace thermistors have an operating vary as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer items with a two-wire method with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the principle of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to alter with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature vary. The corresponding temperature could be determined by measuring the resistance.RTDs are normally manufactured from pure metals, especially platinum, which has very good stability and linearity over a big temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are quick enough that resistance does not affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to carry the excitation current, thus providing a method to get rid of line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate pressure and sense leads. This is essentially the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher value

Long-term stabilityHigher requirements for current sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are often integrated into built-in circuits (ICs). Two similar diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, however they’ve the bottom temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a end result of ICs have the slowest response over a slim temperature vary (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are ไดอะแฟรม of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature using the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an external transistor. The transistor is positioned away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that routinely adjusts the temperature, normally based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the surroundings. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set point, the thermostat activates or shuts down heating or cooling tools to take care of the specified temperature.
There are many kinds of thermostats available, together with knob-type, digital, programmable, and sensible thermostats to meet the needs of different users.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical system for measuring temperature that takes advantage of the reality that two different metals have different coefficients of thermal growth. When the temperature modifications, the 2 metals in the bimetal increase or contract at totally different charges. Since the 2 metals are tightly bound together, this difference causes the complete bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is normally made right into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature adjustments, the degree of bimetal bending changes, and this modification could be learn immediately as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the target surface. They depend on the thermal energy radiated by the thing to measure temperature, the most common type being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the intensity of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to determine its temperature. They are ideal for use when an object is moving or the temperature is merely too excessive or too low, as they do not need to come back into contact with the thing itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the surface of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are used in a broad variety of business and scientific purposes, together with temperature control of electronic devices, monitoring of chemical reactions, food quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of industrial devices

How to determine on a temperature sensor?

Measuring range: Different temperature sensors have completely different measuring ranges. First determine the temperature range that must be measured, and select a sensor that may meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another necessary choice factor for temperature sensors. Different sensor sorts have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have greater accuracies, whereas thermocouples have decrease accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their operating surroundings, corresponding to humidity, corrosive substances, excessive stress and other environmental conditions.
Application: Application situations require a quick response to temperature changes, so it could be very important choose a sensor with a fast response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are equipped with 316 stainless steel rods and inner wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types can be found in two stem types: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for optimum thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are perfect for liquid functions.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid excessive environments

Record and analyze knowledge

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is dependent upon your utility and trade, in case you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, be at liberty to contact Apure skilled and technical group to supply an answer. We also offer devices for water high quality evaluation, flow meters, level measurement, strain measurement, ozone generators and temperature controller.
Extended reading:
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Temperature, as a basic and critical environmental parameter, is the temperature vary within which many chemical reactions and biological processes are optimized, and even the performance of some electronic circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature plays a pivotal position in experimentation and engineering, and a selection of methods have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific analysis and engineering applications.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose a temperature sensor?

How to take care of the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring device. It converts heat (temperature) into a readable type corresponding to an electrical signal such as current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in business zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical field

Environmental monitoring

Electronic tools

Food and beverage trade

Pharmaceutical trade

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by the use of an electrical sign. They contain two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature changes. Temperature sensor work is based on measuring the voltage across the terminals of a diode. As the voltage will increase, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which point there is a lower in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that should be in direct contact with the object to be measured so as to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize totally different bodily properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, present, etc.) for temperature measurement, and their modifications can replicate the temperature of the object to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are most commonly used in industrial, automotive, and everyday household purposes. Because they are self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have fast response occasions, and might operate over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a ring of two totally different metallic wires wound together to produce a voltage change between the two metals that’s proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are made from numerous totally different supplies, permitting temperature sensors to measure different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The most commonly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are additionally designated using the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, much like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance adjustments with temperature. They are normally manufactured from a polymer or ceramic coated with a glass floor, which is why they’re cheaper and fewer accurate than RTDs. There are two primary kinds of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical type and are characterized by a decrease in resistance because the temperature increases. This is because at greater temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor material will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an operating vary of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and normal thermistors have an working vary as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer units with a two-wire method with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the principle of measuring temperature by utilizing the property of resistance to change with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature vary. The corresponding temperature may be determined by measuring the resistance.RTDs are normally made of pure metals, particularly platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a big temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are quick sufficient that resistance doesn’t affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration provides an RTD probe to carry the excitation present, thus providing a method to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate drive and sense leads. This is probably the most accurate configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher value

Long-term stabilityHigher requirements for current sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are often integrated into integrated circuits (ICs). Two similar diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature adjustments. IC sensors have a linear response, however they have the bottom temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a end result of ICs have the slowest response over a narrow temperature range (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two types of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature using the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is positioned away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a device that mechanically adjusts the temperature, normally based mostly on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the environment. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls under a set point, the thermostat activates or shuts down heating or cooling gear to take care of the desired temperature.
There are many types of thermostats obtainable, together with knob-type, digital, programmable, and smart thermostats to satisfy the wants of various users.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical gadget for measuring temperature that takes advantage of the fact that two totally different metals have different coefficients of thermal expansion. When the temperature modifications, the two metals within the bimetal expand or contract at different rates. Since the 2 metals are tightly bound together, this distinction causes the whole bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature changes, the degree of bimetal bending changes, and this modification may be read instantly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the goal surface. They rely on the thermal energy radiated by the thing to measure temperature, the most common kind being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the intensity of infrared radiation emitted by a goal object to discover out its temperature. They are excellent for use when an object is shifting or the temperature is merely too excessive or too low, as they do not want to come into contact with the object itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional image of the temperature distribution on the floor of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are used in a broad variety of commercial and scientific applications, together with temperature control of electronic gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food quality management, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of business devices

How to choose on a temperature sensor?

Measuring range: Different temperature sensors have different measuring ranges. First determine the temperature range that must be measured, and select a sensor that can meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is one other necessary choice issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor varieties have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have greater accuracies, whereas thermocouples have decrease accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working environment, such as humidity, corrosive substances, excessive strain and different environmental situations.
Application: Application situations require a fast response to temperature changes, so you will want to select a sensor with a fast response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are provided with 316 stainless-steel rods and inside wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head styles can be found in two stem types: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for max thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are good for liquid applications.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze knowledge

Summary

Which temperature sensor to use is determined by your application and trade, if you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, be at liberty to contact Apure skilled and technical group to supply an answer. We also supply devices for water high quality analysis, flow meters, degree measurement, stress measurement, ozone turbines and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of stage measurement transmitters

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